The National Archives of Ireland have published their survey of hospital archives in Ireland. The survey funded by the Wellcome Trust was carried out between May 2014 and December 2015 with the objective of establishing the location, extent, content and condition of the archives of hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Approximately 200 locations were identified as holding records and It was envisaged that the survey findings and recommendations would provide a basis for the development of policy on permanent preservation and access, and facilitate the formulation of a strategy to ensure the transfer of all records of permanent value to the custody of archival institutions.
Alison Scott, Project Archivist, Glasgow City Archives
The Wellcome Trust is funding a project to catalogue the records of the Glasgow Public Health Department and its predecessor authorities.
Glasgow paid a heavy price for being the ‘second city of the empire’. Rapid industrialisation led to over-crowding and dangerous levels of pollution. The resulting effects on the health of the people were profound. In 1895 the Public Health Department was formed, as the city attempted to address these effects. Under its succession of dedicated Medical Officers of Health it slowly created a better city.
The Department’s work lent itself to statistical analysis and the ultimate expression of this was the annual report of the Medical Officer of Health. The Department used the report both to quantify the issues and illustrate their progress. They date from 1863, when the first Medical Officer of Health was appointed, and the amount of information in them increases over time with a typical report from 1913 having 58 tables as appendices as well as further statistics in sections on population; maternity and child welfare; infectious diseases; respiratory diseases and tuberculosis; venereal disease; the work of the Port Local Authority; housing; Bacteriological Laboratory; food; air purification; and the work of the hospitals.
The annual reports are supported by files of raw data used to compile them, along with weekly and fortnightly returns of mortality statistics (1844-1973); and reports on specific events such as the typhoid outbreak in 1880 and the influenza epidemic in 1957. Although not all the administrative files of the Department have survived, those that there are in the collection also help to add meat to the bones of the ‘official version’.
The collection also contains the Department’s working records such as reports on housing conditions and insanitary tenements (1920); returns of infectious diseases (1920-1973); prosecutions for smoke pollution (1899-1960); and files on the wartime inspection of shipping.
Apart from the core records other resources include 137 newspaper cuttings files on a wide variety of health and social subjects (1907-1939); publications by the Department (1897-1974); and a large number of glass negatives and lantern slides.
Work is already finished on the departmental records themselves and an item-level list of this important collection is available for the first time.
The project has not stopped with the records of the Department, however. Acknowledging the complicated history of health functions in Glasgow, the current work of the project is to re-catalogue the Police records. In the 19th century policing the city was seen as much more than a crime-fighting operation. Records of the Board of Police and its committees date from 1800 and cover such subjects as health, hospitals, cleansing, and sewage disposal.
The project is similarly extended to the records of the burghs absorbed into the city through boundary extensions as they also had public health functions. Their records will be re-catalogued, including a substantial amount of previously unavailable material.
The quotation in the title come from the sermon given at the funeral in 1904 of James Burn Russell, Glasgow and Scotland’s first full time Medical Officer of Health. The minister presiding looked to a future where there would be ‘a corporate humanity, a public virtue, a body-politic with its laws, duties and responsibilities’. He saw Russell as having fought against both ignorance and selfishness to create a model of his work in sanitation for the rest of the world to follow.
An online article in celebration of James Burn Russell, Glasgow’s first full time Medical Officer of Health, can be found at: http://bit.ly/2dxyiZl
LHSA holds over one million patient case notes covering a wide variety of medical specialties. These folder-based case notes contain a range of documents relating to patient care, and can be a rich primary archival source for an array of historical, scientific and medical disciplines. Cataloguing such records, however, can be a difficult undertaking.
As part of the Centre for Research Collections’ exhibition Enhance, Access and Understand: The University of Edinburgh and the Wellcome Trust, archivist Louise Williams will explore how LHSA has overcome the challenges involved in cataloguing neurosurgical and tuberculosis case notes to realise the unique research potential of these two significant collections. This talk will take place on Wednesday 19 October from 12.30pm to 1pm, at the Centre for Research Collections, University of Edinburgh.
Clare Button, Project Archivist, University of Edinburgh
Today, Edinburgh is world-renowned as a centre for animal genetics and genomics. This history stretches back over a century, and has left a rich documentary record. Over the past four years, Edinburgh University Library Special Collections has received two large grants as well as a scoping and digitisation grant, all under the Wellcome Trust’s Research Resources scheme, to preserve, catalogue and make available this important heritage.
I started as Project Archivist in 2012 with the project ‘Towards Dolly: Edinburgh, Roslin and the Birth of Modern Genetics.’ Since then, the work of this and related projects has encompassed a variety of activities: book and archive cataloguing, conservation, digitisation, public engagement, oral histories, an exhibition and academic research.
The earliest archival collection relates to James Cossar Ewart, professor of natural history at the University from 1882 to 1927, who was instrumental in establishing genetics as a subject at the University. He is most famous for carrying out cross-breeding experiments on zebras, of which there are some fascinating photographs. The most recent collection is the records of the Roslin Institute, who hit world news with the birth of Dolly the sheep in 1996. And it’s not all just about the science: the collections also comprise artwork, a record of scientists singing comedy genetics songs, photographs of social events, a vintage microscope and even wooden signs from buildings! These collections tell the story of how genetics has diversified over the last century, from large-scale and long-running animal breeding experiments and perilous work with mustard gas, to modern-day cloning, stem cells and biotechnology. Since the projects began we have continued to receive donations from scientists and their families, which has expanded our collections from the original 9 to 23 (and counting).
In addition to the archives, we also hold an array of published scientific papers and some outstanding rare books originally from Roslin’s library, the earliest of which dates from 1573! These papers and books were catalogued by the project’s Rare Book Cataloguer, Kristy Davis, as were a collection of 3,500 glass photographic slides dating from the late 19th to early 20th century. This collection depicts not only different breeds of livestock but also people and scenes from around the world (our favourite is a picture of a man riding a llama). This fragile collection received conservation treatment, as did a number of rare books and archival items, and in 2014 the slides were also digitised to further facilitate access. All the slides are now available to view online at http://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/servlet/UoEgal~6~6.
At first I was daunted that my lack of genetics knowledge would make cataloguing difficult. However, we were lucky to have support from two academic advisers, Steve Sturdy (Professor of the Sociology of Medical Knowledge, University of Edinburgh) and Grahame Bulfield (former director of Roslin and Emeritus Professor of Genetics, University of Edinburgh). Steve and Grahame helped decipher laboratory notebooks, identify people and places and introduced us to useful contacts. This said, being immersed in the collections for so long has improved my scientific vocabulary, and I’m pleased to say I now know my DNA from my Drosophila…
We’ve worked hard to engage the research community with these rich collections by presenting at conferences, networking at University events and maintaining a blog (http://libraryblogs.is.ed.ac.uk/towardsdolly/). However, it has also been valuable to engage with the public about the collections and the stories they tell. At events like the Edinburgh International Science Festival, Doors Open Day and talks at local history societies, people often express a real sense of local pride in Dolly and surprise at the diversity of genetics research in Edinburgh’s history. Probably our most successful piece of engagement was the exhibition ‘Towards Dolly: a century of animal genetics in Edinburgh’, which ran in the Main Library from July to October 2015. This featured an array of material from our collections as well as items on loan from scientific institutions (including DNA models, stem cell artwork and the microscope used to clone Dolly) and, of course, Dolly the sheep herself from National Museums Scotland. Dolly is a hugely popular exhibit, and the exhibition received our highest ever visitor figures as well as a proliferation of ‘Dolly selfies’! You can see some of the exhibits here: https://exhibitions.ed.ac.uk/search/*:*/Exhibition:%22towards+dolly%7C%7C%7CTowards+Dolly%22
As comprehensive as the collections appear to be, there are inevitably gaps in the records. With the help of Grahame Bulfield, we carried out a series of oral history recordings with ten contemporary scientists involved in genetics and genomics, one of whom had begun work as a scientist in the 1940s. These recordings, which we plan to make available online in the future, are full of personal anecdotes, reminiscences and valuable information which are not always captured in paper records.
After working so closely with this material for a number of years, it was hard to leave it behind once the projects came to an end. I was therefore delighted to receive a Research Bursary from the Wellcome Trust, which is currently enabling me to carry out academic research on the collections I have catalogued, as well as to visit other genetics collections which have received Wellcome Trust funding. From this research I hope to produce a journal article about the early history of animal genetics in Edinburgh, as well as continuing to engage with our academic and public audiences about these diverse collections. Dolly lives on!
Boots Archive have recently received funding from the Wellcome Trust to help develop its collections through The Wellcome’s Research Resources Grants Fund. On 7th October there will be a chance to hear more about Boots Archive’s experience and the Fund in general. This is an excellent opportunity for business archives to find out more about the opportunities offered by the Wellcome Foundation for projects to increase access to material which has a link to wellbeing or health in its widest form.
The programme is as follows:
10.30 – Introduction and plan for the session – Sophie Clapp, Boots Archive
10. 45 – Intro to Research Resources Scheme (and initial questions) – Chris Hassan, Wellcome Trust
11. 15 – Boots: why we wanted to transform our service, approach taken & learnings – Boots Archive, SC
11.45 – Boots: Rediscovering the Boots Archive -project delivery, decisions taken & learnings – Hannah Jenkinson, Boots Archive
12.15 – LUNCH
1.00 – Tour of Wellcome – Ross MacFarlane, Wellcome Library
1.30 – Dr Richard Hornsey, History Department, University of Nottingham: Providing an insight into the researcher’s experience
2.00 – Boots: Assessing the benefits and next steps – Judith Wright, Boots Archive
2.30 – Coffee
2.45 – Q&A panel session – Boots team, Dr Richard Hornsey and Chris Hassan
3.15 – Finish
The meeting will take place in the Burroughs Room at the Wellcome Collection Conference Centre. Lunch and refreshments throughout the day will be provided.
To book please contact Sophie Clapp at firstname.lastname@example.org